HOW TO: Install WordPress on Amazon EC2

First thing’s first. I am kinda new to WordPress. (Yes, I said I am behind in technologies in my previous post, didn’t I?) I setup a WordPress blog for Spotivate a few months ago. Today, I set up my own WordPress on an Amazon EC2 micro instance. Here are the steps I took.

Christophe Coenraets has an amazing tutorial on how to install WordPress on EC2 here. So I am not going to repeat it, since it was really that simple and took less that 5 minutes as advertised.

A few comments:

  • I didn’t create a small instance. Instead, I chose a (Free) micro instance. Why? Well, it’s free. Also, micro will do for now given I have no traffic. Plus, I want to show you how to migrate / upgrade from micro to small later!
  • There are a few typos in the tutorial:
    • mysql_secure_Installation should be mysql_secure_installation
    • tar -xzvf latest.tar.gzcd should be tar -xzvf latest.tar.gz
  • If you followed the instructions given by Christophe, the owner of the blog folder is “root”. Apache runs as “apache” by default. You will have problem uploading plugins and media files later on, since apache != root. Change the owner of /var/www/html/blog to apache:apache by running this command:
    sudo chown -R apache:apache /var/www/html/blog

Now that the URL is up, I want to make it so that brings the user there as well. There are a few ways I can do that.

  1. Move my blog folder to root as described here. Yes, it looks complicated but not really. Just a matter of moving the blog directory and reconfiguring a few things like Permalinks. I’ve decided against that because I want to keep the URLs of my blog posts under /blog/, e.g. /blog/hello-world. I have other projects in mind, and want freedom over my URL namespace in the future. REMEMBER: Once your blog post is published, you need to make sure that the URL works forever, as other people will likely link to your post if your post is any good. You need to maintain backward compatibility whenever you change your URL structure, so better to keep all blog related activities isolated to /blog.
  2. Setup HTTP redirect so that the end users are redirected to

I am going with redirect method. Now, there are difference kinds of redirect. SEOmoz has an excellent article here that describes HTTP Redirection in detail. Basically, there are three main types of redirect:

  1. 301 (Moved permanently)
  2. 302 (Moved temporarily)
  3. Meta Refresh

Option 3 requires the most work for everyone since I need to write an index.html with meta tag, and the end user’s browser need to do more work (load the page, parse, execute meta refresh, etc) and hence slower.

The difference between 1 and 2 is very subtle, and mainly impacts how search engines crawl and index your pages. 301 is the most suitable option, since I don’t plan on having anything other than my blog on my home page in the foreseeable future.

Edit /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf and stick this block of code to the end of the file:

RewriteEngine On
RedirectMatch 301 /index.html /blog

Restart Apache by running this command:

sudo service httpd restart

Now, the URLs for my blog posts look something like /blog?p=1. It doesn’t look very pretty and also affects SEO. Here’s how you can make it look more like /blog/hello-world.

Again, edit /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf and look for the following blocks of code and change AllowOverride from None to All. Restart Apache HTTP server afterwards.

<Directory />
Options FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride All
<Directory "/var/www/html">
Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride All
Order allow,deny
Allow from all

Create an .htaccess file in your blog folder. If you follow the instructions outlined by Christophe Coenraets, then your blog folder would be /var/www/html/blog. A lot of examples online tell you to create an empty .htaccess file, chmod it with 666 permission, and let WordPress admin handle the changes. I highly recommend against that due to security risk. Most people forget to change it back to 644. Instead, simply create the file and with the following content:

<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /blog/
RewriteRule ^index\.php$ - [L]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule . /blog/index.php [L]

Now, go to your WordPress admin. Navigate over to Settings >> Permalinks. Here’s what you should see.

Wordpress Permalink Settings

Pick one that is suitable for you. Yoast suggested that it’s best to stick with “Post name” to give your post a timeless look, so I follow his recommendation. Click Save Changes and voila, your blog post URLs are now readable and timeless.

Next: Themes, plug-ins, custom CSS, nav bar, and more! (Did I say the more I learn, the more behind I feel?)

  • Mart Fone

    hi jorge!